A central platform between tracks seems to be more common in Europe and especially used on subway branches to the city outskirts where expected traffic is lower than in the city centre due to lower population density.
Cost-savings are the main reason for building this kind of 'island' platforms. As you don't need two sets of stairs or escalors to connect each of the side platforms to the mezzanine: one escalator for going up and one for going down with stairs in bewteen suffice.
It also enables subway stations to be equipped with elevators directly from street level to platform level as one will do for an island platform. Stations can also be much smaller.
Stations on a soon-to-open Brussels' metro extension go even further. In these stations the mezzanine level is elminated completely. Which means that from streetlevel you can descend right onto the island platform and take the metro in order to reduce travelling time.
You find a large number of this kind of island platform stations on the Munich, Rotterdam, Amsterdam, Brussels and soon-to-open Copenhagen subways. In America the Los Angeles Red Line uses this kind of stations.
By the way, a station similar to the Lionel-Groulx architecture can be found in Brussels. There you have two levels with a central platform and side platforms. On the level -1 there's a mezzanine, on level -2 you can take the metro to the city centre or the subway tram to the city center, on level -3 you can take the metro or tram to the city outskirts. The central platform allows exchange across trains and direction. The side platforms offer direct access via stairs and escalators to the mezzanine level bypassing other levels.